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alsa-util.c

/***
  This file is part of PulseAudio.

  Copyright 2004-2009 Lennart Poettering
  Copyright 2006 Pierre Ossman <ossman@cendio.se> for Cendio AB

  PulseAudio is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
  it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published
  by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License,
  or (at your option) any later version.

  PulseAudio is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
  WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
  General Public License for more details.

  You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
  along with PulseAudio; if not, write to the Free Software
  Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307
  USA.
***/

#ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H
#include <config.h>
#endif

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <asoundlib.h>

#include <pulse/sample.h>
#include <pulse/xmalloc.h>
#include <pulse/timeval.h>
#include <pulse/util.h>
#include <pulse/i18n.h>
#include <pulse/utf8.h>

#include <pulsecore/log.h>
#include <pulsecore/macro.h>
#include <pulsecore/core-util.h>
#include <pulsecore/atomic.h>
#include <pulsecore/core-error.h>
#include <pulsecore/once.h>
#include <pulsecore/thread.h>
#include <pulsecore/conf-parser.h>

#include "alsa-util.h"
#include "alsa-mixer.h"

#ifdef HAVE_HAL
#include "hal-util.h"
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_UDEV
#include "udev-util.h"
#endif

static int set_format(snd_pcm_t *pcm_handle, snd_pcm_hw_params_t *hwparams, pa_sample_format_t *f) {

    static const snd_pcm_format_t format_trans[] = {
        [PA_SAMPLE_U8] = SND_PCM_FORMAT_U8,
        [PA_SAMPLE_ALAW] = SND_PCM_FORMAT_A_LAW,
        [PA_SAMPLE_ULAW] = SND_PCM_FORMAT_MU_LAW,
        [PA_SAMPLE_S16LE] = SND_PCM_FORMAT_S16_LE,
        [PA_SAMPLE_S16BE] = SND_PCM_FORMAT_S16_BE,
        [PA_SAMPLE_FLOAT32LE] = SND_PCM_FORMAT_FLOAT_LE,
        [PA_SAMPLE_FLOAT32BE] = SND_PCM_FORMAT_FLOAT_BE,
        [PA_SAMPLE_S32LE] = SND_PCM_FORMAT_S32_LE,
        [PA_SAMPLE_S32BE] = SND_PCM_FORMAT_S32_BE,
        [PA_SAMPLE_S24LE] = SND_PCM_FORMAT_S24_3LE,
        [PA_SAMPLE_S24BE] = SND_PCM_FORMAT_S24_3BE,
        [PA_SAMPLE_S24_32LE] = SND_PCM_FORMAT_S24_LE,
        [PA_SAMPLE_S24_32BE] = SND_PCM_FORMAT_S24_BE,
    };

    static const pa_sample_format_t try_order[] = {
        PA_SAMPLE_FLOAT32NE,
        PA_SAMPLE_FLOAT32RE,
        PA_SAMPLE_S32NE,
        PA_SAMPLE_S32RE,
        PA_SAMPLE_S24_32NE,
        PA_SAMPLE_S24_32RE,
        PA_SAMPLE_S24NE,
        PA_SAMPLE_S24RE,
        PA_SAMPLE_S16NE,
        PA_SAMPLE_S16RE,
        PA_SAMPLE_ALAW,
        PA_SAMPLE_ULAW,
        PA_SAMPLE_U8
    };

    unsigned i;
    int ret;

    pa_assert(pcm_handle);
    pa_assert(hwparams);
    pa_assert(f);

    if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_set_format(pcm_handle, hwparams, format_trans[*f])) >= 0)
        return ret;

    pa_log_debug("snd_pcm_hw_params_set_format(%s) failed: %s",
                 snd_pcm_format_description(format_trans[*f]),
                 pa_alsa_strerror(ret));

    if (*f == PA_SAMPLE_FLOAT32BE)
        *f = PA_SAMPLE_FLOAT32LE;
    else if (*f == PA_SAMPLE_FLOAT32LE)
        *f = PA_SAMPLE_FLOAT32BE;
    else if (*f == PA_SAMPLE_S24BE)
        *f = PA_SAMPLE_S24LE;
    else if (*f == PA_SAMPLE_S24LE)
        *f = PA_SAMPLE_S24BE;
    else if (*f == PA_SAMPLE_S24_32BE)
        *f = PA_SAMPLE_S24_32LE;
    else if (*f == PA_SAMPLE_S24_32LE)
        *f = PA_SAMPLE_S24_32BE;
    else if (*f == PA_SAMPLE_S16BE)
        *f = PA_SAMPLE_S16LE;
    else if (*f == PA_SAMPLE_S16LE)
        *f = PA_SAMPLE_S16BE;
    else if (*f == PA_SAMPLE_S32BE)
        *f = PA_SAMPLE_S32LE;
    else if (*f == PA_SAMPLE_S32LE)
        *f = PA_SAMPLE_S32BE;
    else
        goto try_auto;

    if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_set_format(pcm_handle, hwparams, format_trans[*f])) >= 0)
        return ret;

    pa_log_debug("snd_pcm_hw_params_set_format(%s) failed: %s",
                 snd_pcm_format_description(format_trans[*f]),
                 pa_alsa_strerror(ret));

try_auto:

    for (i = 0; i < PA_ELEMENTSOF(try_order); i++) {
        *f = try_order[i];

        if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_set_format(pcm_handle, hwparams, format_trans[*f])) >= 0)
            return ret;

        pa_log_debug("snd_pcm_hw_params_set_format(%s) failed: %s",
                     snd_pcm_format_description(format_trans[*f]),
                     pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
    }

    return -1;
}

static int set_period_size(snd_pcm_t *pcm_handle, snd_pcm_hw_params_t *hwparams, snd_pcm_uframes_t size) {
    snd_pcm_uframes_t s;
    int d, ret;

    pa_assert(pcm_handle);
    pa_assert(hwparams);

    s = size;
    d = 0;
    if (snd_pcm_hw_params_set_period_size_near(pcm_handle, hwparams, &s, &d) < 0) {
        s = size;
        d = -1;
        if (snd_pcm_hw_params_set_period_size_near(pcm_handle, hwparams, &s, &d) < 0) {
            s = size;
            d = 1;
            if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_set_period_size_near(pcm_handle, hwparams, &s, &d)) < 0) {
                pa_log_info("snd_pcm_hw_params_set_period_size_near() failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
                return ret;
            }
        }
    }

    return 0;
}

static int set_buffer_size(snd_pcm_t *pcm_handle, snd_pcm_hw_params_t *hwparams, snd_pcm_uframes_t size) {
    int ret;

    pa_assert(pcm_handle);
    pa_assert(hwparams);

    if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_set_buffer_size_near(pcm_handle, hwparams, &size)) < 0) {
        pa_log_info("snd_pcm_hw_params_set_buffer_size_near() failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
        return ret;
    }

    return 0;
}

/* Set the hardware parameters of the given ALSA device. Returns the
 * selected fragment settings in *buffer_size and *period_size. If tsched mode can be enabled */
int pa_alsa_set_hw_params(
        snd_pcm_t *pcm_handle,
        pa_sample_spec *ss,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t *period_size,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t *buffer_size,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t tsched_size,
        pa_bool_t *use_mmap,
        pa_bool_t *use_tsched,
        pa_bool_t require_exact_channel_number) {

    int ret = -1;
    snd_pcm_hw_params_t *hwparams, *hwparams_copy;
    int dir;
    snd_pcm_uframes_t _period_size = period_size ? *period_size : 0;
    snd_pcm_uframes_t _buffer_size = buffer_size ? *buffer_size : 0;
    pa_bool_t _use_mmap = use_mmap && *use_mmap;
    pa_bool_t _use_tsched = use_tsched && *use_tsched;
    pa_sample_spec _ss = *ss;

    pa_assert(pcm_handle);
    pa_assert(ss);

    snd_pcm_hw_params_alloca(&hwparams);
    snd_pcm_hw_params_alloca(&hwparams_copy);

    if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_any(pcm_handle, hwparams)) < 0) {
        pa_log_debug("snd_pcm_hw_params_any() failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
        goto finish;
    }

    if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_set_rate_resample(pcm_handle, hwparams, 0)) < 0) {
        pa_log_debug("snd_pcm_hw_params_set_rate_resample() failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
        goto finish;
    }

    if (_use_mmap) {

        if (snd_pcm_hw_params_set_access(pcm_handle, hwparams, SND_PCM_ACCESS_MMAP_INTERLEAVED) < 0) {

            /* mmap() didn't work, fall back to interleaved */

            if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_set_access(pcm_handle, hwparams, SND_PCM_ACCESS_RW_INTERLEAVED)) < 0) {
                pa_log_debug("snd_pcm_hw_params_set_access() failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
                goto finish;
            }

            _use_mmap = FALSE;
        }

    } else if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_set_access(pcm_handle, hwparams, SND_PCM_ACCESS_RW_INTERLEAVED)) < 0) {
        pa_log_debug("snd_pcm_hw_params_set_access() failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
        goto finish;
    }

    if (!_use_mmap)
        _use_tsched = FALSE;

    if (!pa_alsa_pcm_is_hw(pcm_handle))
        _use_tsched = FALSE;

    if ((ret = set_format(pcm_handle, hwparams, &_ss.format)) < 0)
        goto finish;

    if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_set_rate_near(pcm_handle, hwparams, &_ss.rate, NULL)) < 0) {
        pa_log_debug("snd_pcm_hw_params_set_rate_near() failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
        goto finish;
    }

    if (require_exact_channel_number) {
        if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_set_channels(pcm_handle, hwparams, _ss.channels)) < 0) {
            pa_log_debug("snd_pcm_hw_params_set_channels(%u) failed: %s", _ss.channels, pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
            goto finish;
        }
    } else {
        unsigned int c = _ss.channels;

        if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_set_channels_near(pcm_handle, hwparams, &c)) < 0) {
            pa_log_debug("snd_pcm_hw_params_set_channels_near(%u) failed: %s", _ss.channels, pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
            goto finish;
        }

        _ss.channels = c;
    }

    if (_use_tsched && tsched_size > 0) {
        _buffer_size = (snd_pcm_uframes_t) (((uint64_t) tsched_size * _ss.rate) / ss->rate);
        _period_size = _buffer_size;
    } else {
        _period_size = (snd_pcm_uframes_t) (((uint64_t) _period_size * _ss.rate) / ss->rate);
        _buffer_size = (snd_pcm_uframes_t) (((uint64_t) _buffer_size * _ss.rate) / ss->rate);
    }

    if (_buffer_size > 0 || _period_size > 0) {
        snd_pcm_uframes_t max_frames = 0;

        if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_get_buffer_size_max(hwparams, &max_frames)) < 0)
            pa_log_warn("snd_pcm_hw_params_get_buffer_size_max() failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
        else
            pa_log_debug("Maximum hw buffer size is %lu ms", (long unsigned) (max_frames * PA_MSEC_PER_SEC / _ss.rate));

        /* Some ALSA drivers really don't like if we set the buffer
         * size first and the number of periods second. (which would
         * make a lot more sense to me) So, try a few combinations
         * before we give up. */

        if (_buffer_size > 0 && _period_size > 0) {
            snd_pcm_hw_params_copy(hwparams_copy, hwparams);

            /* First try: set buffer size first, followed by period size */
            if (set_buffer_size(pcm_handle, hwparams_copy, _buffer_size) >= 0 &&
                set_period_size(pcm_handle, hwparams_copy, _period_size) >= 0 &&
                snd_pcm_hw_params(pcm_handle, hwparams_copy) >= 0) {
                pa_log_debug("Set buffer size first, period size second.");
                goto success;
            }

            /* Second try: set period size first, followed by buffer size */
            if (set_period_size(pcm_handle, hwparams_copy, _period_size) >= 0 &&
                set_buffer_size(pcm_handle, hwparams_copy, _buffer_size) >= 0 &&
                snd_pcm_hw_params(pcm_handle, hwparams_copy) >= 0) {
                pa_log_debug("Set period size first, buffer size second.");
                goto success;
            }
        }

        if (_buffer_size > 0) {
            snd_pcm_hw_params_copy(hwparams_copy, hwparams);

            /* Third try: set only buffer size */
            if (set_buffer_size(pcm_handle, hwparams_copy, _buffer_size) >= 0 &&
                snd_pcm_hw_params(pcm_handle, hwparams_copy) >= 0) {
                pa_log_debug("Set only buffer size second.");
                goto success;
            }
        }

        if (_period_size > 0) {
            snd_pcm_hw_params_copy(hwparams_copy, hwparams);

            /* Fourth try: set only period size */
            if (set_period_size(pcm_handle, hwparams_copy, _period_size) >= 0 &&
                snd_pcm_hw_params(pcm_handle, hwparams_copy) >= 0) {
                pa_log_debug("Set only period size second.");
                goto success;
            }
        }
    }

    pa_log_debug("Set neither period nor buffer size.");

    /* Last chance, set nothing */
    if  ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params(pcm_handle, hwparams)) < 0) {
        pa_log_info("snd_pcm_hw_params failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
        goto finish;
    }

success:

    if (ss->rate != _ss.rate)
        pa_log_info("Device %s doesn't support %u Hz, changed to %u Hz.", snd_pcm_name(pcm_handle), ss->rate, _ss.rate);

    if (ss->channels != _ss.channels)
        pa_log_info("Device %s doesn't support %u channels, changed to %u.", snd_pcm_name(pcm_handle), ss->channels, _ss.channels);

    if (ss->format != _ss.format)
        pa_log_info("Device %s doesn't support sample format %s, changed to %s.", snd_pcm_name(pcm_handle), pa_sample_format_to_string(ss->format), pa_sample_format_to_string(_ss.format));

    if ((ret = snd_pcm_prepare(pcm_handle)) < 0) {
        pa_log_info("snd_pcm_prepare() failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
        goto finish;
    }

    if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_current(pcm_handle, hwparams)) < 0) {
        pa_log_info("snd_pcm_hw_params_current() failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
        goto finish;
    }

    if ((ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_get_period_size(hwparams, &_period_size, &dir)) < 0 ||
        (ret = snd_pcm_hw_params_get_buffer_size(hwparams, &_buffer_size)) < 0) {
        pa_log_info("snd_pcm_hw_params_get_{period|buffer}_size() failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(ret));
        goto finish;
    }

    /* If the sample rate deviates too much, we need to resample */
    if (_ss.rate < ss->rate*.95 || _ss.rate > ss->rate*1.05)
        ss->rate = _ss.rate;
    ss->channels = _ss.channels;
    ss->format = _ss.format;

    pa_assert(_period_size > 0);
    pa_assert(_buffer_size > 0);

    if (buffer_size)
        *buffer_size = _buffer_size;

    if (period_size)
        *period_size = _period_size;

    if (use_mmap)
        *use_mmap = _use_mmap;

    if (use_tsched)
        *use_tsched = _use_tsched;

    ret = 0;

    snd_pcm_nonblock(pcm_handle, 1);

finish:

    return ret;
}

int pa_alsa_set_sw_params(snd_pcm_t *pcm, snd_pcm_uframes_t avail_min) {
    snd_pcm_sw_params_t *swparams;
    snd_pcm_uframes_t boundary;
    int err;

    pa_assert(pcm);

    snd_pcm_sw_params_alloca(&swparams);

    if ((err = snd_pcm_sw_params_current(pcm, swparams) < 0)) {
        pa_log_warn("Unable to determine current swparams: %s\n", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
        return err;
    }

    if ((err = snd_pcm_sw_params_set_period_event(pcm, swparams, 0)) < 0) {
        pa_log_warn("Unable to disable period event: %s\n", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
        return err;
    }

    if ((err = snd_pcm_sw_params_set_tstamp_mode(pcm, swparams, SND_PCM_TSTAMP_ENABLE)) < 0) {
        pa_log_warn("Unable to enable time stamping: %s\n", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
        return err;
    }

    if ((err = snd_pcm_sw_params_get_boundary(swparams, &boundary)) < 0) {
        pa_log_warn("Unable to get boundary: %s\n", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
        return err;
    }

    if ((err = snd_pcm_sw_params_set_stop_threshold(pcm, swparams, boundary)) < 0) {
        pa_log_warn("Unable to set stop threshold: %s\n", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
        return err;
    }

    if ((err = snd_pcm_sw_params_set_start_threshold(pcm, swparams, (snd_pcm_uframes_t) -1)) < 0) {
        pa_log_warn("Unable to set start threshold: %s\n", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
        return err;
    }

    if ((err = snd_pcm_sw_params_set_avail_min(pcm, swparams, avail_min)) < 0) {
        pa_log_error("snd_pcm_sw_params_set_avail_min() failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
        return err;
    }

    if ((err = snd_pcm_sw_params(pcm, swparams)) < 0) {
        pa_log_warn("Unable to set sw params: %s\n", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
        return err;
    }

    return 0;
}

snd_pcm_t *pa_alsa_open_by_device_id_auto(
        const char *dev_id,
        char **dev,
        pa_sample_spec *ss,
        pa_channel_map* map,
        int mode,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t *period_size,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t *buffer_size,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t tsched_size,
        pa_bool_t *use_mmap,
        pa_bool_t *use_tsched,
        pa_alsa_profile_set *ps,
        pa_alsa_mapping **mapping) {

    char *d;
    snd_pcm_t *pcm_handle;
    void *state;
    pa_alsa_mapping *m;

    pa_assert(dev_id);
    pa_assert(dev);
    pa_assert(ss);
    pa_assert(map);
    pa_assert(ps);

    /* First we try to find a device string with a superset of the
     * requested channel map. We iterate through our device table from
     * top to bottom and take the first that matches. If we didn't
     * find a working device that way, we iterate backwards, and check
     * all devices that do not provide a superset of the requested
     * channel map.*/

    PA_HASHMAP_FOREACH(m, ps->mappings, state) {
        if (!pa_channel_map_superset(&m->channel_map, map))
            continue;

        pa_log_debug("Checking for superset %s (%s)", m->name, m->device_strings[0]);

        pcm_handle = pa_alsa_open_by_device_id_mapping(
                dev_id,
                dev,
                ss,
                map,
                mode,
                period_size,
                buffer_size,
                tsched_size,
                use_mmap,
                use_tsched,
                m);

        if (pcm_handle) {
            if (mapping)
                *mapping = m;

            return pcm_handle;
        }
    }

    PA_HASHMAP_FOREACH_BACKWARDS(m, ps->mappings, state) {
        if (pa_channel_map_superset(&m->channel_map, map))
            continue;

        pa_log_debug("Checking for subset %s (%s)", m->name, m->device_strings[0]);

        pcm_handle = pa_alsa_open_by_device_id_mapping(
                dev_id,
                dev,
                ss,
                map,
                mode,
                period_size,
                buffer_size,
                tsched_size,
                use_mmap,
                use_tsched,
                m);

        if (pcm_handle) {
            if (mapping)
                *mapping = m;

            return pcm_handle;
        }
    }

    /* OK, we didn't find any good device, so let's try the raw hw: stuff */
    d = pa_sprintf_malloc("hw:%s", dev_id);
    pa_log_debug("Trying %s as last resort...", d);
    pcm_handle = pa_alsa_open_by_device_string(
            d,
            dev,
            ss,
            map,
            mode,
            period_size,
            buffer_size,
            tsched_size,
            use_mmap,
            use_tsched,
            FALSE);
    pa_xfree(d);

    if (pcm_handle && mapping)
        *mapping = NULL;

    return pcm_handle;
}

snd_pcm_t *pa_alsa_open_by_device_id_mapping(
        const char *dev_id,
        char **dev,
        pa_sample_spec *ss,
        pa_channel_map* map,
        int mode,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t *period_size,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t *buffer_size,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t tsched_size,
        pa_bool_t *use_mmap,
        pa_bool_t *use_tsched,
        pa_alsa_mapping *m) {

    snd_pcm_t *pcm_handle;
    pa_sample_spec try_ss;
    pa_channel_map try_map;

    pa_assert(dev_id);
    pa_assert(dev);
    pa_assert(ss);
    pa_assert(map);
    pa_assert(m);

    try_ss.channels = m->channel_map.channels;
    try_ss.rate = ss->rate;
    try_ss.format = ss->format;
    try_map = m->channel_map;

    pcm_handle = pa_alsa_open_by_template(
            m->device_strings,
            dev_id,
            dev,
            &try_ss,
            &try_map,
            mode,
            period_size,
            buffer_size,
            tsched_size,
            use_mmap,
            use_tsched,
            TRUE);

    if (!pcm_handle)
        return NULL;

    *ss = try_ss;
    *map = try_map;
    pa_assert(map->channels == ss->channels);

    return pcm_handle;
}

snd_pcm_t *pa_alsa_open_by_device_string(
        const char *device,
        char **dev,
        pa_sample_spec *ss,
        pa_channel_map* map,
        int mode,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t *period_size,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t *buffer_size,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t tsched_size,
        pa_bool_t *use_mmap,
        pa_bool_t *use_tsched,
        pa_bool_t require_exact_channel_number) {

    int err;
    char *d;
    snd_pcm_t *pcm_handle;
    pa_bool_t reformat = FALSE;

    pa_assert(device);
    pa_assert(ss);
    pa_assert(map);

    d = pa_xstrdup(device);

    for (;;) {
        pa_log_debug("Trying %s %s SND_PCM_NO_AUTO_FORMAT ...", d, reformat ? "without" : "with");

        if ((err = snd_pcm_open(&pcm_handle, d, mode,
                                SND_PCM_NONBLOCK|
                                SND_PCM_NO_AUTO_RESAMPLE|
                                SND_PCM_NO_AUTO_CHANNELS|
                                (reformat ? 0 : SND_PCM_NO_AUTO_FORMAT))) < 0) {
            pa_log_info("Error opening PCM device %s: %s", d, pa_alsa_strerror(err));
            goto fail;
        }

        pa_log_debug("Managed to open %s", d);

        if ((err = pa_alsa_set_hw_params(
                     pcm_handle,
                     ss,
                     period_size,
                     buffer_size,
                     tsched_size,
                     use_mmap,
                     use_tsched,
                     require_exact_channel_number)) < 0) {

            if (!reformat) {
                reformat = TRUE;

                snd_pcm_close(pcm_handle);
                continue;
            }

            /* Hmm, some hw is very exotic, so we retry with plug, if without it didn't work */
            if (!pa_startswith(d, "plug:") && !pa_startswith(d, "plughw:")) {
                char *t;

                t = pa_sprintf_malloc("plug:%s", d);
                pa_xfree(d);
                d = t;

                reformat = FALSE;

                snd_pcm_close(pcm_handle);
                continue;
            }

            pa_log_info("Failed to set hardware parameters on %s: %s", d, pa_alsa_strerror(err));
            snd_pcm_close(pcm_handle);

            goto fail;
        }

        if (dev)
            *dev = d;
        else
            pa_xfree(d);

        if (ss->channels != map->channels)
            pa_channel_map_init_extend(map, ss->channels, PA_CHANNEL_MAP_ALSA);

        return pcm_handle;
    }

fail:
    pa_xfree(d);

    return NULL;
}

snd_pcm_t *pa_alsa_open_by_template(
        char **template,
        const char *dev_id,
        char **dev,
        pa_sample_spec *ss,
        pa_channel_map* map,
        int mode,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t *period_size,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t *buffer_size,
        snd_pcm_uframes_t tsched_size,
        pa_bool_t *use_mmap,
        pa_bool_t *use_tsched,
        pa_bool_t require_exact_channel_number) {

    snd_pcm_t *pcm_handle;
    char **i;

    for (i = template; *i; i++) {
        char *d;

        d = pa_replace(*i, "%f", dev_id);

        pcm_handle = pa_alsa_open_by_device_string(
                d,
                dev,
                ss,
                map,
                mode,
                period_size,
                buffer_size,
                tsched_size,
                use_mmap,
                use_tsched,
                require_exact_channel_number);

        pa_xfree(d);

        if (pcm_handle)
            return pcm_handle;
    }

    return NULL;
}

void pa_alsa_dump(pa_log_level_t level, snd_pcm_t *pcm) {
    int err;
    snd_output_t *out;

    pa_assert(pcm);

    pa_assert_se(snd_output_buffer_open(&out) == 0);

    if ((err = snd_pcm_dump(pcm, out)) < 0)
        pa_logl(level, "snd_pcm_dump(): %s", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
    else {
        char *s = NULL;
        snd_output_buffer_string(out, &s);
        pa_logl(level, "snd_pcm_dump():\n%s", pa_strnull(s));
    }

    pa_assert_se(snd_output_close(out) == 0);
}

void pa_alsa_dump_status(snd_pcm_t *pcm) {
    int err;
    snd_output_t *out;
    snd_pcm_status_t *status;
    char *s = NULL;

    pa_assert(pcm);

    snd_pcm_status_alloca(&status);

    if ((err = snd_output_buffer_open(&out)) < 0) {
        pa_log_debug("snd_output_buffer_open() failed: %s", pa_cstrerror(err));
        return;
    }

    if ((err = snd_pcm_status(pcm, status)) < 0) {
        pa_log_debug("snd_pcm_status() failed: %s", pa_cstrerror(err));
        goto finish;
    }

    if ((err = snd_pcm_status_dump(status, out)) < 0) {
        pa_log_debug("snd_pcm_dump(): %s", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
        goto finish;
    }

    snd_output_buffer_string(out, &s);
    pa_log_debug("snd_pcm_dump():\n%s", pa_strnull(s));

finish:

    snd_output_close(out);
}

static void alsa_error_handler(const char *file, int line, const char *function, int err, const char *fmt,...) {
    va_list ap;
    char *alsa_file;

    alsa_file = pa_sprintf_malloc("(alsa-lib)%s", file);

    va_start(ap, fmt);

    pa_log_levelv_meta(PA_LOG_INFO, alsa_file, line, function, fmt, ap);

    va_end(ap);

    pa_xfree(alsa_file);
}

static pa_atomic_t n_error_handler_installed = PA_ATOMIC_INIT(0);

void pa_alsa_refcnt_inc(void) {
    /* This is not really thread safe, but we do our best */

    if (pa_atomic_inc(&n_error_handler_installed) == 0)
        snd_lib_error_set_handler(alsa_error_handler);
}

void pa_alsa_refcnt_dec(void) {
    int r;

    pa_assert_se((r = pa_atomic_dec(&n_error_handler_installed)) >= 1);

    if (r == 1) {
        snd_lib_error_set_handler(NULL);
        snd_config_update_free_global();
    }
}

pa_bool_t pa_alsa_init_description(pa_proplist *p) {
    const char *d, *k;
    pa_assert(p);

    if (pa_device_init_description(p))
        return TRUE;

    if (!(d = pa_proplist_gets(p, "alsa.card_name")))
        d = pa_proplist_gets(p, "alsa.name");

    if (!d)
        return FALSE;

    k = pa_proplist_gets(p, PA_PROP_DEVICE_PROFILE_DESCRIPTION);

    if (d && k)
        pa_proplist_setf(p, PA_PROP_DEVICE_DESCRIPTION, _("%s %s"), d, k);
    else if (d)
        pa_proplist_sets(p, PA_PROP_DEVICE_DESCRIPTION, d);

    return FALSE;
}

void pa_alsa_init_proplist_card(pa_core *c, pa_proplist *p, int card) {
    char *cn, *lcn, *dn;

    pa_assert(p);
    pa_assert(card >= 0);

    pa_proplist_setf(p, "alsa.card", "%i", card);

    if (snd_card_get_name(card, &cn) >= 0) {
        pa_proplist_sets(p, "alsa.card_name", cn);
        free(cn);
    }

    if (snd_card_get_longname(card, &lcn) >= 0) {
        pa_proplist_sets(p, "alsa.long_card_name", lcn);
        free(lcn);
    }

    if ((dn = pa_alsa_get_driver_name(card))) {
        pa_proplist_sets(p, "alsa.driver_name", dn);
        pa_xfree(dn);
    }

#ifdef HAVE_UDEV
    pa_udev_get_info(card, p);
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_HAL
    pa_hal_get_info(c, p, card);
#endif
}

void pa_alsa_init_proplist_pcm_info(pa_core *c, pa_proplist *p, snd_pcm_info_t *pcm_info) {

    static const char * const alsa_class_table[SND_PCM_CLASS_LAST+1] = {
        [SND_PCM_CLASS_GENERIC] = "generic",
        [SND_PCM_CLASS_MULTI] = "multi",
        [SND_PCM_CLASS_MODEM] = "modem",
        [SND_PCM_CLASS_DIGITIZER] = "digitizer"
    };
    static const char * const class_table[SND_PCM_CLASS_LAST+1] = {
        [SND_PCM_CLASS_GENERIC] = "sound",
        [SND_PCM_CLASS_MULTI] = NULL,
        [SND_PCM_CLASS_MODEM] = "modem",
        [SND_PCM_CLASS_DIGITIZER] = NULL
    };
    static const char * const alsa_subclass_table[SND_PCM_SUBCLASS_LAST+1] = {
        [SND_PCM_SUBCLASS_GENERIC_MIX] = "generic-mix",
        [SND_PCM_SUBCLASS_MULTI_MIX] = "multi-mix"
    };

    snd_pcm_class_t class;
    snd_pcm_subclass_t subclass;
    const char *n, *id, *sdn;
    int card;

    pa_assert(p);
    pa_assert(pcm_info);

    pa_proplist_sets(p, PA_PROP_DEVICE_API, "alsa");

    if ((class = snd_pcm_info_get_class(pcm_info)) <= SND_PCM_CLASS_LAST) {
        if (class_table[class])
            pa_proplist_sets(p, PA_PROP_DEVICE_CLASS, class_table[class]);
        if (alsa_class_table[class])
            pa_proplist_sets(p, "alsa.class", alsa_class_table[class]);
    }

    if ((subclass = snd_pcm_info_get_subclass(pcm_info)) <= SND_PCM_SUBCLASS_LAST)
        if (alsa_subclass_table[subclass])
            pa_proplist_sets(p, "alsa.subclass", alsa_subclass_table[subclass]);

    if ((n = snd_pcm_info_get_name(pcm_info)))
        pa_proplist_sets(p, "alsa.name", n);

    if ((id = snd_pcm_info_get_id(pcm_info)))
        pa_proplist_sets(p, "alsa.id", id);

    pa_proplist_setf(p, "alsa.subdevice", "%u", snd_pcm_info_get_subdevice(pcm_info));
    if ((sdn = snd_pcm_info_get_subdevice_name(pcm_info)))
        pa_proplist_sets(p, "alsa.subdevice_name", sdn);

    pa_proplist_setf(p, "alsa.device", "%u", snd_pcm_info_get_device(pcm_info));

    if ((card = snd_pcm_info_get_card(pcm_info)) >= 0)
        pa_alsa_init_proplist_card(c, p, card);
}

void pa_alsa_init_proplist_pcm(pa_core *c, pa_proplist *p, snd_pcm_t *pcm) {
    snd_pcm_hw_params_t *hwparams;
    snd_pcm_info_t *info;
    int bits, err;

    snd_pcm_hw_params_alloca(&hwparams);
    snd_pcm_info_alloca(&info);

    if ((err = snd_pcm_hw_params_current(pcm, hwparams)) < 0)
        pa_log_warn("Error fetching hardware parameter info: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
    else {

        if ((bits = snd_pcm_hw_params_get_sbits(hwparams)) >= 0)
            pa_proplist_setf(p, "alsa.resolution_bits", "%i", bits);
    }

    if ((err = snd_pcm_info(pcm, info)) < 0)
        pa_log_warn("Error fetching PCM info: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
    else
        pa_alsa_init_proplist_pcm_info(c, p, info);
}

void pa_alsa_init_proplist_ctl(pa_proplist *p, const char *name) {
    int err;
    snd_ctl_t *ctl;
    snd_ctl_card_info_t *info;
    const char *t;

    pa_assert(p);

    snd_ctl_card_info_alloca(&info);

    if ((err = snd_ctl_open(&ctl, name, 0)) < 0) {
        pa_log_warn("Error opening low-level control device '%s': %s", name, snd_strerror(err));
        return;
    }

    if ((err = snd_ctl_card_info(ctl, info)) < 0) {
        pa_log_warn("Control device %s card info: %s", name, snd_strerror(err));
        snd_ctl_close(ctl);
        return;
    }

    if ((t = snd_ctl_card_info_get_mixername(info)) && *t)
        pa_proplist_sets(p, "alsa.mixer_name", t);

    if ((t = snd_ctl_card_info_get_components(info)) && *t)
        pa_proplist_sets(p, "alsa.components", t);

    snd_ctl_close(ctl);
}

int pa_alsa_recover_from_poll(snd_pcm_t *pcm, int revents) {
    snd_pcm_state_t state;
    int err;

    pa_assert(pcm);

    if (revents & POLLERR)
        pa_log_debug("Got POLLERR from ALSA");
    if (revents & POLLNVAL)
        pa_log_warn("Got POLLNVAL from ALSA");
    if (revents & POLLHUP)
        pa_log_warn("Got POLLHUP from ALSA");
    if (revents & POLLPRI)
        pa_log_warn("Got POLLPRI from ALSA");
    if (revents & POLLIN)
        pa_log_debug("Got POLLIN from ALSA");
    if (revents & POLLOUT)
        pa_log_debug("Got POLLOUT from ALSA");

    state = snd_pcm_state(pcm);
    pa_log_debug("PCM state is %s", snd_pcm_state_name(state));

    /* Try to recover from this error */

    switch (state) {

        case SND_PCM_STATE_XRUN:
            if ((err = snd_pcm_recover(pcm, -EPIPE, 1)) != 0) {
                pa_log_warn("Could not recover from POLLERR|POLLNVAL|POLLHUP and XRUN: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
                return -1;
            }
            break;

        case SND_PCM_STATE_SUSPENDED:
            if ((err = snd_pcm_recover(pcm, -ESTRPIPE, 1)) != 0) {
                pa_log_warn("Could not recover from POLLERR|POLLNVAL|POLLHUP and SUSPENDED: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
                return -1;
            }
            break;

        default:

            snd_pcm_drop(pcm);

            if ((err = snd_pcm_prepare(pcm)) < 0) {
                pa_log_warn("Could not recover from POLLERR|POLLNVAL|POLLHUP with snd_pcm_prepare(): %s", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
                return -1;
            }
            break;
    }

    return 0;
}

pa_rtpoll_item* pa_alsa_build_pollfd(snd_pcm_t *pcm, pa_rtpoll *rtpoll) {
    int n, err;
    struct pollfd *pollfd;
    pa_rtpoll_item *item;

    pa_assert(pcm);

    if ((n = snd_pcm_poll_descriptors_count(pcm)) < 0) {
        pa_log("snd_pcm_poll_descriptors_count() failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(n));
        return NULL;
    }

    item = pa_rtpoll_item_new(rtpoll, PA_RTPOLL_NEVER, (unsigned) n);
    pollfd = pa_rtpoll_item_get_pollfd(item, NULL);

    if ((err = snd_pcm_poll_descriptors(pcm, pollfd, (unsigned) n)) < 0) {
        pa_log("snd_pcm_poll_descriptors() failed: %s", pa_alsa_strerror(err));
        pa_rtpoll_item_free(item);
        return NULL;
    }

    return item;
}

snd_pcm_sframes_t pa_alsa_safe_avail(snd_pcm_t *pcm, size_t hwbuf_size, const pa_sample_spec *ss) {
    snd_pcm_sframes_t n;
    size_t k;

    pa_assert(pcm);
    pa_assert(hwbuf_size > 0);
    pa_assert(ss);

    /* Some ALSA driver expose weird bugs, let's inform the user about
     * what is going on */

    n = snd_pcm_avail(pcm);

    if (n <= 0)
        return n;

    k = (size_t) n * pa_frame_size(ss);

    if (k >= hwbuf_size * 5 ||
        k >= pa_bytes_per_second(ss)*10) {

        PA_ONCE_BEGIN {
            char *dn = pa_alsa_get_driver_name_by_pcm(pcm);
            pa_log(_("snd_pcm_avail() returned a value that is exceptionally large: %lu bytes (%lu ms).\n"
                     "Most likely this is a bug in the ALSA driver '%s'. Please report this issue to the ALSA developers."),
                   (unsigned long) k,
                   (unsigned long) (pa_bytes_to_usec(k, ss) / PA_USEC_PER_MSEC),
                   pa_strnull(dn));
            pa_xfree(dn);
            pa_alsa_dump(PA_LOG_ERROR, pcm);
        } PA_ONCE_END;

        /* Mhmm, let's try not to fail completely */
        n = (snd_pcm_sframes_t) (hwbuf_size / pa_frame_size(ss));
    }

    return n;
}

int pa_alsa_safe_delay(snd_pcm_t *pcm, snd_pcm_sframes_t *delay, size_t hwbuf_size, const pa_sample_spec *ss) {
    ssize_t k;
    size_t abs_k;
    int r;

    pa_assert(pcm);
    pa_assert(delay);
    pa_assert(hwbuf_size > 0);
    pa_assert(ss);

    /* Some ALSA driver expose weird bugs, let's inform the user about
     * what is going on */

    if ((r = snd_pcm_delay(pcm, delay)) < 0)
        return r;

    k = (ssize_t) *delay * (ssize_t) pa_frame_size(ss);

    abs_k = k >= 0 ? (size_t) k : (size_t) -k;

    if (abs_k >= hwbuf_size * 5 ||
        abs_k >= pa_bytes_per_second(ss)*10) {

        PA_ONCE_BEGIN {
            char *dn = pa_alsa_get_driver_name_by_pcm(pcm);
            pa_log(_("snd_pcm_delay() returned a value that is exceptionally large: %li bytes (%s%lu ms).\n"
                     "Most likely this is a bug in the ALSA driver '%s'. Please report this issue to the ALSA developers."),
                   (signed long) k,
                   k < 0 ? "-" : "",
                   (unsigned long) (pa_bytes_to_usec(abs_k, ss) / PA_USEC_PER_MSEC),
                   pa_strnull(dn));
            pa_xfree(dn);
            pa_alsa_dump(PA_LOG_ERROR, pcm);
        } PA_ONCE_END;

        /* Mhmm, let's try not to fail completely */
        if (k < 0)
            *delay = -(snd_pcm_sframes_t) (hwbuf_size / pa_frame_size(ss));
        else
            *delay = (snd_pcm_sframes_t) (hwbuf_size / pa_frame_size(ss));
    }

    return 0;
}

int pa_alsa_safe_mmap_begin(snd_pcm_t *pcm, const snd_pcm_channel_area_t **areas, snd_pcm_uframes_t *offset, snd_pcm_uframes_t *frames, size_t hwbuf_size, const pa_sample_spec *ss) {
    int r;
    snd_pcm_uframes_t before;
    size_t k;

    pa_assert(pcm);
    pa_assert(areas);
    pa_assert(offset);
    pa_assert(frames);
    pa_assert(hwbuf_size > 0);
    pa_assert(ss);

    before = *frames;

    r = snd_pcm_mmap_begin(pcm, areas, offset, frames);

    if (r < 0)
        return r;

    k = (size_t) *frames * pa_frame_size(ss);

    if (*frames > before ||
        k >= hwbuf_size * 3 ||
        k >= pa_bytes_per_second(ss)*10)

        PA_ONCE_BEGIN {
            char *dn = pa_alsa_get_driver_name_by_pcm(pcm);
            pa_log(_("snd_pcm_mmap_begin() returned a value that is exceptionally large: %lu bytes (%lu ms).\n"
                     "Most likely this is a bug in the ALSA driver '%s'. Please report this issue to the ALSA developers."),
                   (unsigned long) k,
                   (unsigned long) (pa_bytes_to_usec(k, ss) / PA_USEC_PER_MSEC),
                   pa_strnull(dn));
            pa_xfree(dn);
            pa_alsa_dump(PA_LOG_ERROR, pcm);
        } PA_ONCE_END;

    return r;
}

char *pa_alsa_get_driver_name(int card) {
    char *t, *m, *n;

    pa_assert(card >= 0);

    t = pa_sprintf_malloc("/sys/class/sound/card%i/device/driver/module", card);
    m = pa_readlink(t);
    pa_xfree(t);

    if (!m)
        return NULL;

    n = pa_xstrdup(pa_path_get_filename(m));
    pa_xfree(m);

    return n;
}

char *pa_alsa_get_driver_name_by_pcm(snd_pcm_t *pcm) {
    int card;
    snd_pcm_info_t* info;
    snd_pcm_info_alloca(&info);

    pa_assert(pcm);

    if (snd_pcm_info(pcm, info) < 0)
        return NULL;

    if ((card = snd_pcm_info_get_card(info)) < 0)
        return NULL;

    return pa_alsa_get_driver_name(card);
}

char *pa_alsa_get_reserve_name(const char *device) {
    const char *t;
    int i;

    pa_assert(device);

    if ((t = strchr(device, ':')))
        device = t+1;

    if ((i = snd_card_get_index(device)) < 0) {
        int32_t k;

        if (pa_atoi(device, &k) < 0)
            return NULL;

        i = (int) k;
    }

    return pa_sprintf_malloc("Audio%i", i);
}

pa_bool_t pa_alsa_pcm_is_hw(snd_pcm_t *pcm) {
    snd_pcm_info_t* info;
    snd_pcm_info_alloca(&info);

    pa_assert(pcm);

    if (snd_pcm_info(pcm, info) < 0)
        return FALSE;

    return snd_pcm_info_get_card(info) >= 0;
}

pa_bool_t pa_alsa_pcm_is_modem(snd_pcm_t *pcm) {
    snd_pcm_info_t* info;
    snd_pcm_info_alloca(&info);

    pa_assert(pcm);

    if (snd_pcm_info(pcm, info) < 0)
        return FALSE;

    return snd_pcm_info_get_class(info) == SND_PCM_CLASS_MODEM;
}

PA_STATIC_TLS_DECLARE(cstrerror, pa_xfree);

const char* pa_alsa_strerror(int errnum) {
    const char *original = NULL;
    char *translated, *t;
    char errbuf[128];

    if ((t = PA_STATIC_TLS_GET(cstrerror)))
        pa_xfree(t);

    original = snd_strerror(errnum);

    if (!original) {
        pa_snprintf(errbuf, sizeof(errbuf), "Unknown error %i", errnum);
        original = errbuf;
    }

    if (!(translated = pa_locale_to_utf8(original))) {
        pa_log_warn("Unable to convert error string to locale, filtering.");
        translated = pa_utf8_filter(original);
    }

    PA_STATIC_TLS_SET(cstrerror, translated);

    return translated;
}

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